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    Economic News Release
    PRINT:Print
    CES CES Program Links

    Real Earnings Technical Note

    Technical Note
    
    
    
    The earnings series presented in this release are 
    derived from the Bureau of Labor Statistics?Current 
    Employment Statistics (CES) survey, a monthly 
    establishment survey of employment, payroll, and hours. 
    The deflators used for constant-dollar earnings series 
    presented in this release come from the Consumer Price 
    Indexes Program. The Consumer Price Index for All Urban 
    Consumers (CPI-U) is used to deflate earnings for the all 
    employees series, while the Consumer Price Index for 
    Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W) is used 
    to deflate earnings for the production and nonsupervisory 
    employees series.
    
    Seasonally adjusted data are used for estimates of 
    percent change from the same month a year ago for 
    current and constant average hourly and weekly earnings. 
    Special techniques are applied to the CES hours and 
    earnings data in the seasonal adjustment process to 
    mitigate the effect of certain calendar-related 
    fluctuations. Thus, over-the-year changes of these hours 
    and earnings are best measured using seasonally adjusted 
    series. A discussion of the calendar-related fluctuations 
    in the hours and earnings data and the special techniques 
    to remove them is available in the February 2004 issue 
    of Employment and Earnings or at 
    www.testbild-music.com/ces/cesfltxt.htm. 
    
    Earnings series from the monthly establishment survey 
    are estimated arithmetic averages (means) of the hourly 
    and weekly earnings of all jobs in the private nonfarm 
    sector of the economy, as well as of all production and 
    nonsupervisory jobs in the private nonfarm sector of the 
    economy. Average hourly earnings estimates are derived by 
    dividing the estimated industry payroll by the 
    corresponding paid hours. Average weekly hours estimates 
    are similarly derived by dividing estimated aggregate 
    hours by the corresponding number of jobs. Average weekly 
    earnings estimates are derived by multiplying the 
    average hourly earnings and the average weekly hours 
    estimates. This is equivalent to dividing the estimated 
    payroll by the corresponding  number of jobs. The 
    weekly and hourly earnings estimates for aggregate 
    industries, such as the total private sector averages 
    printed in this release, are derived by summing the 
    corresponding payroll, hours, and employment estimates 
    of the component industries. As a result, each industry 
    receives a "weight" in the published averages that 
    corresponds to its current level of activity (employment 
    or total hours). This further implies that fluctuations 
    and varying trends in employment in high-wage versus 
    low-wage industries as well as wage rate changes influence 
    the earnings averages.
    
    There are several characteristics of the series presented 
    in this release that limit their suitability for some types 
    of economic analyses. (1) The denominator for the all 
    employee weekly earnings series is the number of private 
    nonfarm jobs.  Similarly, the denominator of the production 
    and nonsupervisory employee weekly earnings series is the 
    number of private nonfarm production and nonsupervisory 
    employee jobs. This number includes full-time and part-time 
    jobs as well as the jobs held by multiple jobholders in 
    the private nonfarm sector. These factors tend to result 
    in weekly earnings averages significantly lower than the 
    corresponding numbers for full-time jobs. (2) Annual 
    earnings averages can differ significantly from the result 
    obtained by multiplying average weekly earnings times 
    52 weeks. The difference may be due to factors such as 
    turnovers and layoffs. (3) The series are the average 
    earnings of all employees or all production and 
    nonsupervisory jobs, not the earnings average of "typical" 
    jobs or jobs held by "typical" workers. Specifically, there 
    are no adjustments for occupational, age, or schooling 
    variations or for household type or location. Many studies 
    have established the significance of these factors and that 
    their impact varies over time.
    
    Seasonally adjusted data are preferred by some users for 
    analyzing general earnings trends in the economy since 
    they eliminate the effect of changes that normally occur 
    at the same time and in about the same magnitude each year 
    and, therefore, reveal the underlying trends and cyclical 
    movements. Changes in average earnings may be due to seasonal 
    changes in the proportion of workers in high-wage and 
    low-wage industries or occupations or to seasonal changes 
    in the amount of overtime work, and so on.
    
    For more information, see Thomas Gavett, "Measures of Change 
    in Real Wages and Earnings," Monthly Labor Review, 
    February 1972.
    
    Information in this release will be made available to sensory 
    impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: 202-691-5200; 
    TDD Message Referral Phone Number: 1-800-877-8339.
    

    Table of Contents

    Last Modified Date: February 13, 2020
    国内三级a在线
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