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    October 2019 Report 1082

    Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2018

    Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2018 image

    In 2018, the overall unemployment rate (jobless rate) for the United States was 3.9 percent; however, the rate varied across race and ethnicity groups. Among the race groups, jobless rates were higher than the national rate for American Indians and Alaska Natives (6.6 percent), Blacks or African Americans (6.5 percent), people categorized as being of Two or More Races (5.5 percent), and Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (5.3 percent). Jobless rates were lower than the national rate for Asians (3.0 percent) and Whites (3.5 percent). The rate for people of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, at 4.7 percent, was higher than the rate of 3.7 percent for non-Hispanics.

    Labor market differences among the race and ethnicity groups are associated with many factors, not all of which are measurable. These factors include variations in educational attainment across the groups; the occupations and industries in which the groups work; the geographic areas of the country in which the groups are concentrated, including whether they tend to reside in urban or rural settings; and the degree of discrimination encountered in the workplace.

    This report describes the labor force characteristics and earnings patterns among the largest race and ethnicity groups living in the United States—Whites, Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics—and provides detailed data through a set of supporting tables. The report also contains a limited amount of data on American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, people who are of Two or More Races, detailed Asian groups, and detailed Hispanic groups. Estimates of these additional groups are not included in all tables because of their relatively small sample sizes.

    The data were obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of about 60,000 households that is a rich source of information on the labor force. For definitions of terms and concepts used in this report, see the technical notes. Additional information about the CPS can be found at www.testbild-music.com/cps/documentation.htm.

    The sections that follow highlight some of the major findings on the labor force characteristics of race and ethnicity groups in 2018.

    Composition of the labor force

    By race, Whites made up the majority of the labor force (78 percent). Blacks and Asians constituted an additional 13 percent and 6 percent, respectively. American Indians and Alaska Natives made up 1 percent of the labor force, while Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders accounted for less than 1 percent. People of Two or More Races made up 2 percent of the labor force (as computed from table 1).

    Among Asians participating in the labor force, the largest group was Asian Indian, making up 24 percent of all Asians. Chinese made up 22 percent, followed by Filipinos (15 percent), Vietnamese (11 percent), Koreans (7 percent), and Japanese (5 percent). The remainder (16 percent) were classified as Other Asians, a category that includes individuals in an Asian group not listed above—such as Hmong, Laotian, Thai, Pakistani, and Cambodian—and those who reported two or more Asian groups (as computed from table 2). Seventeen percent of the labor force were people of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, who may be of any race. The majority of Hispanics in the labor force were White (89 percent), 4 percent were Black, and 1 percent were Asian. (See table 2.) By detailed ethnicity, the majority of Hispanics in the labor force were Mexican (61 percent). Central Americans made up another 10 percent. Eight percent of Hispanics were Puerto Rican, 7 percent were South American, and 4 percent were Cuban. An additional 9 percent were classified as Dominican and Other Hispanic or Latino.

    Labor force participation

    Among the race and ethnicity groups, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (68.5 percent), people of Two or More Races (66.6 percent), and Hispanics (66.3 percent) had the highest labor force participation rates. American Indians and Alaska Natives (59.6 percent) had the lowest rate. The participation rate for Asians was 63.5 percent; Whites, 62.8 percent; and Blacks, 62.3 percent. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 4, and 4A, and chart 1.)

    Among adult men (20 years and older) in the largest race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics (80.2 percent) were more likely to participate in the labor force than were the other groups, while Blacks (68.0 percent) were the least likely. The labor force participation rate for Asian men (74.9 percent) was higher than the rate for White men (71.8 percent). Among adult women (20 years and older), Blacks (62.4 percent) were more likely to participate in the labor force than were Hispanics (59.4 percent), Asians (58.6 percent), and Whites (57.6 percent). Among teenagers (16 to 19 years), Asians (19.6 percent) were less likely to participate in the labor force than were Whites (37.2 percent), Hispanics (32.5 percent), and Blacks (30.5 percent). (See table 3.)

    Employment

    The employment–population ratio (the proportion of the population that is employed) ranged from 55.6 percent for American Indians and Alaska Natives to 64.9 percent for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders. The employment–population ratio was 58.3 percent for Blacks, 60.7 percent for Whites, 61.6 percent for Asians, 62.9 percent for individuals of Two or More Races, and 63.2 percent for Hispanics. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 5, and 5A.)

    Among adult men (20 years and older) in the largest race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics (77.1 percent) continued to have the highest employment–population ratio. Black men (63.7 percent) had the lowest, also continuing a longstanding pattern. The employment–population ratios for Asian men and White men were 72.8 percent and 69.5 percent, respectively. Among adult women, the ratios showed less variation across the major race and ethnicity groups: 59.0 percent for Blacks, 56.9 percent for Asians, 56.6 percent for Hispanics, and 55.8 percent for Whites. (See table 3.)

    The employment–population ratio among teenagers (16 to 19 years) continued to be higher for Whites than for Hispanics, Asians, or Blacks. The ratio for White teens (33.0 percent) was about 15 percentage points higher than the ratio for Asian teens (17.9 percent), about 9 percentage points higher than for Black teens (23.8 percent), and about 5 percentage points higher than for Hispanic teens (27.8 percent).

    Educational attainment

    Among people 25 years and older, the share of the labor force with at least a high school diploma was more than 90 percent each for Whites, Blacks, and Asians. Seventy-six percent of Hispanics in the labor force had attained at least a high school diploma. Asians were the most likely of the groups to have graduated from college: 63 percent of Asians in the labor force had a bachelor’s degree and higher, compared with 41 percent of Whites, 31 percent of Blacks, and 21 percent of Hispanics (computed from table 6 and chart 2).

    Higher levels of education are generally associated with a greater likelihood of employment, and a lower likelihood of unemployment. For almost all major race and ethnicity groups, jobless rates for people with a bachelor’s degree and higher were generally lower than for other levels of educational attainment. (See table 6.)

    Individuals with higher levels of education are more likely to be employed in higher paying jobs—such as those in management, professional, and related occupations—than are individuals with less education. Median earnings of people 25 years and older increased with educational attainment across all major race and ethnicity groups. Among full-time wage and salary workers, median usual weekly earnings for Blacks ($1,065) and Hispanics ($1,101) with a bachelor’s degree and higher were lower than Asians ($1,465) and Whites ($1,342). (See table 17.)

    Occupation

    Fifty-four percent of employed Asians worked in management, professional, and related occupations—the highest paying major occupational category—compared with 41 percent of employed Whites, 31 percent of employed Blacks, and 22 percent of employed Hispanics. (See table 7 and chart 3.)

    Among employed men, 55 percent of Asians worked in management, professional, and related occupations, compared with 37 percent of Whites, 26 percent of Blacks, and 19 percent of Hispanics. About 20 percent of employed Black and Hispanic men were employed in service occupations, whereas 13 percent of both employed Asian and White men worked in these occupations. Employed Black and Hispanic men also were more likely than White and Asian men to work in production, transportation, and material moving occupations. Twenty-eight percent of employed Hispanic men worked in natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations, compared with 18 percent of White men, 12 percent of Black men, and 6 percent of Asian men. (See table 7.)

    Employed Asian women were more likely than other employed women to work in management, professional, and related occupations: 53 percent of Asian women, compared with 45 percent of White women, 36 percent of Black women, and 27 percent of Hispanic women. Among employed women, 61 percent of Hispanics worked in two occupational groups—service occupations and sales and office occupations—compared with 55 percent of Blacks, 48 percent of Whites, and 41 percent of Asians.

    Hispanics accounted for 17 percent of total employment but were substantially overrepresented in several detailed occupational categories, including painters, construction and maintenance (55 percent); miscellaneous agricultural workers (53 percent); and maids and housekeeping cleaners (49 percent). Blacks made up 12 percent of all employed workers, but accounted for more than one-quarter of those in several specific occupations, including nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides (36 percent); security guards and gaming surveillance officers (31 percent); and licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses (30 percent). Asians accounted for 6 percent of all employed workers, but made up a much larger share of workers in several occupation categories, including miscellaneous personal appearance workers (57 percent); software developers, applications and system software (35 percent); and physicians and surgeons (20 percent). Whites made up 78 percent of all employed people, but accounted for 96 percent of farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers; 92 percent of construction managers; and 90 percent of chief executives. (See table 8.)

    Industry

    Among employed men, Hispanics were more likely to work in the construction industry (21 percent) than were Whites (14 percent), Blacks (7 percent), or Asians (4 percent). Employed Black men were more likely than employed men of other race and ethnicity groups to work in transportation and utilities (13 percent). Twenty-one percent of employed Asian men worked in professional and business services, higher than the shares of White men (13 percent), Hispanic men (11 percent), and Black men (11 percent). A large share of employed women across all race and ethnicity groups worked in education and health services: Blacks (40 percent), Whites (36 percent), Asians (32 percent), and Hispanics (30 percent). (See table 9.)

    Families and parents

    Eighty-eight percent of both Asian families and Hispanic families had an employed family member. By contrast, White and Black families were less likely to have an employed family member: 80 percent and 79 percent, respectively.

    Families maintained by women (no opposite-sex spouse present) accounted for 42 percent of Black families, 25 percent of Hispanic families, 15 percent of White families, and 12 percent of Asian families. Among families maintained by women without a spouse present, Asian families were the most likely to have an employed family member (85 percent). In comparison, 76 percent of Black families, 78 percent of White families, and 80 percent of Hispanic families that were maintained by women had at least one employed family member. In general, families maintained by women were less likely than married-couple families or families maintained by men to have an employed family member. (See table 10.)

    Among mothers with children under 18 years old, Black mothers (77.2 percent) were more likely to be in the labor force than White mothers (71.2 percent), Asian mothers (65.0 percent), or Hispanic mothers (63.9 percent). (See table 11.)

    Across all race and ethnicity groups, fathers with children under 18 years were much more likely to be in the labor force than were mothers with children under 18 years. Labor force participation rates for these fathers were 93.9 percent for White men, 93.8 percent for Hispanic men, 93.4 percent for Asian men, and 89.0 percent for Black men.

    Unemployment

    Jobless rates varied considerably by race and ethnicity. American Indians and Alaska Natives (6.6 percent) and Blacks (6.5 percent) had the highest unemployment rates, and the rate was lowest for Asians (3.0 percent). The jobless rates were 3.5 percent for Whites, 4.7 percent for Hispanics, 5.3 percent for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, and 5.5 percent for individuals of Two or More Races. (See tables 1, 2, 3, 12, and 12A, and charts 4 and 5.)

    Among adults (20 years and older), the jobless rate for Black men (6.2 percent) was higher than that for Black women (5.6 percent). By contrast, adult Hispanic men (3.8 percent) had a lower rate than adult Hispanic women (4.7 percent). For Asians and Whites, the rates for adult men and women showed little or no difference. Among teenagers (16 to 19 years), Blacks had the highest unemployment rate, at 21.9 percent, compared with 14.5 percent for Hispanics, 11.3 percent for Whites, and 8.9 percent for Asians. (See table 3.)

    Unemployed Asians and Blacks experienced longer periods of unemployment than did Whites and Hispanics. The median duration of unemployment for Asians and Blacks was 10.9 weeks and 10.8 weeks, respectively, whereas the figure for Whites was 8.8 weeks and Hispanics, 8.2 weeks. (See table 13.)

    Of the 6.3 million unemployed, 47 percent were job losers (workers who lost their jobs or who completed temporary jobs). Reentrants to the labor force (31 percent), job leavers (13 percent), and new entrants (10 percent) accounted for the rest of the unemployed people. Of the total unemployed for each major race and ethnicity group, 49 percent of Whites and 49 percent of Hispanics were job losers, compared with 46 percent of Blacks and 38 percent of Asians. Sixteen percent of unemployed Asians, 12 percent of unemployed Hispanics, 11 percent of unemployed Blacks, and 8 percent of unemployed Whites were new entrants to the labor force. (See table 14.)

    Not in the labor force

    As computed from table 15, Blacks made up 13 percent of the civilian labor force, and 23 percent of people marginally attached to the labor force. Those marginally attached to the labor force are individuals who

    • were not in the labor force
    • wanted to work and were available to work
    • had looked for a job sometime in the previous 12 months, but not in the 4 weeks preceding the survey.

    Hispanics and Asians were represented among the marginally attached nearly proportionately to their share of the labor force. Whites were underrepresented among the marginally attached relative to their share of the labor force: 78 percent of the labor force versus 67 percent of the marginally attached. Blacks also made up a high proportion of discouraged workers (27 percent) relative to their share of the labor force. Discouraged workers, who represent a subset of the marginally attached, are people not currently looking for work because they believe that no jobs are available for them. (See table 15.)

    Earnings

    Among the major race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics and Blacks continued to have considerably lower earnings than Whites and Asians. The median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers in 2018 were $680 for Hispanics, $694 for Blacks, $916 for Whites, and $1,095 for Asians. The earnings for White men ($1,002), Black men ($735), and Hispanic men ($720) were 81 percent, 59 percent, and 58 percent, respectively, of the earnings of Asian men ($1,241). The median earnings of White women ($817), Black women ($654), and Hispanic women ($617) were 87 percent, 70 percent, and 66 percent, respectively, of the earnings of Asian women ($937). (These earnings comparisons are on a broad level and do not control for many factors that can be significant in explaining earnings differences, such as job skills and responsibilities, work experience, and specialization.) (See table 16.)

    The earnings disparity across the major race and ethnicity groups for men holds for nearly all major occupational groups. For example, median usual weekly earnings of Asian men and White men working full time in management, professional, and related occupations (the highest paying major occupational group), at $1,732 and $1,488, respectively, were considerably higher than the earnings of Hispanic men ($1,174) and Black men ($1,164) in the same occupational group. (See table 18.)

    Median weekly earnings for women by race and ethnicity groups were relatively close across a number of occupations. For example, among women in service occupations, the earnings were $528 for Asians, $517 for Whites, $490 for Blacks, and $489 for Hispanics. By contrast, in management, professional, and related occupations, the earnings of Asian women were higher than those for women in other race and ethnicity groups.

    Statistical Tables

    Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older by gender and race, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
    Gender and race Civilian
    noninsti-
    tutional
    population
    Civilian labor force Not
    in
    labor
    force
    Total Percent of
    population
    Employed Unemployed
    Total Percent of
    population
    Total Percent of
    labor force

    Total

    257,791 162,075 62.9 155,761 60.4 6,314 3.9 95,716

    Men

    124,678 86,096 69.1 82,698 66.3 3,398 3.9 38,582

    Women

    133,112 75,978 57.1 73,063 54.9 2,916 3.8 57,134

    White

    200,221 125,815 62.8 121,461 60.7 4,354 3.5 74,407

    Men

    97,933 68,082 69.5 65,702 67.1 2,380 3.5 29,850

    Women

    102,289 57,732 56.4 55,759 54.5 1,973 3.4 44,556

    Black

    32,761 20,414 62.3 19,091 58.3 1,322 6.5 12,347

    Men

    14,964 9,694 64.8 9,018 60.3 676 7.0 5,270

    Women

    17,797 10,720 60.2 10,073 56.6 646 6.0 7,077

    Asian

    15,961 10,137 63.5 9,832 61.6 304 3.0 5,825

    Men

    7,471 5,346 71.6 5,188 69.4 159 3.0 2,124

    Women

    8,491 4,790 56.4 4,644 54.7 146 3.0 3,700

    American Indian and Alaska Native

    2,881 1,716 59.6 1,603 55.6 113 6.6 1,165

    Men

    1,415 901 63.7 840 59.3 62 6.9 513

    Women

    1,466 815 55.6 763 52.1 52 6.3 651

    Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander

    960 657 68.5 622 64.9 35 5.3 302

    Men

    468 347 74.1 329 70.3 18 5.2 121

    Women

    491 310 63.1 293 59.7 17 5.4 181

    Two or More Races

    5,006 3,336 66.6 3,151 62.9 185 5.5 1,670

    Men

    2,427 1,725 71.1 1,622 66.8 103 6.0 702

    Women

    2,579 1,611 62.5 1,529 59.3 82 5.1 968

    Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

    Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and older by detailed Asian group, and Hispanic or Latino and non-Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, gender, and race, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
    Characteristic Civilian
    noninsti-
    tutional
    population
    Civilian labor force Not
    in
    labor
    force
    Total Percent of
    population
    Employed Unemployed
    Total Percent of
    population
    Total Percent of
    labor force

    Total

    257,791 162,075 62.9 155,761 60.4 6,314 3.9 95,716

    Men

    124,678 86,096 69.1 82,698 66.3 3,398 3.9 38,582

    Women

    133,112 75,978 57.1 73,063 54.9 2,916 3.8 57,134

    Asian

    15,961 10,137 63.5 9,832 61.6 304 3.0 5,825

    Men

    7,471 5,346 71.6 5,188 69.4 159 3.0 2,124

    Women

    8,491 4,790 56.4 4,644 54.7 146 3.0 3,700

    Asian Indian

    3,460 2,385 68.9 2,318 67.0 67 2.8 1,075

    Chinese

    3,720 2,268 61.0 2,207 59.3 61 2.7 1,452

    Filipino

    2,353 1,534 65.2 1,486 63.2 47 3.1 819

    Japanese

    917 509 55.5 495 54.0 14 2.7 408

    Korean

    1,182 712 60.2 694 58.8 17 2.4 470

    Vietnamese

    1,699 1,081 63.6 1,056 62.2 25 2.3 618

    Other Asian

    2,630 1,649 62.7 1,575 59.9 74 4.5 981

    Hispanic or Latino

    42,734 28,336 66.3 27,012 63.2 1,323 4.7 14,398

    Men

    21,287 16,113 75.7 15,418 72.4 695 4.3 5,174

    Women

    21,447 12,223 57.0 11,594 54.1 628 5.1 9,224

    Mexican

    26,031 17,312 66.5 16,497 63.4 815 4.7 8,718

    Men

    13,204 10,107 76.5 9,667 73.2 439 4.3 3,097

    Women

    12,827 7,205 56.2 6,830 53.2 376 5.2 5,621

    Puerto Rican

    3,938 2,408 61.2 2,272 57.7 136 5.7 1,529

    Men

    1,875 1,266 67.5 1,193 63.6 73 5.8 609

    Women

    2,063 1,142 55.4 1,080 52.3 63 5.5 920

    Cuban

    1,905 1,181 62.0 1,139 59.8 41 3.5 725

    Men

    940 660 70.3 636 67.7 24 3.6 279

    Women

    966 520 53.9 503 52.1 17 3.3 446

    Central American

    4,053 2,934 72.4 2,815 69.4 119 4.1 1,119

    Men

    2,082 1,725 82.9 1,664 80.0 61 3.5 356

    Women

    1,972 1,209 61.3 1,150 58.3 58 4.8 763

    Salvadoran

    1,610 1,175 73.0 1,131 70.2 44 3.8 435

    Men

    805 661 82.2 638 79.3 23 3.5 143

    Women

    806 514 63.7 493 61.1 21 4.1 292

    Other Central American

    2,443 1,759 72.0 1,684 68.9 75 4.3 684

    Men

    1,277 1,064 83.3 1,026 80.3 38 3.6 213

    Women

    1,166 695 59.6 658 56.4 37 5.4 471

    South American

    2,887 2,022 70.0 1,936 67.0 86 4.2 866

    Men

    1,352 1,062 78.6 1,025 75.8 37 3.5 290

    Women

    1,535 959 62.5 910 59.3 49 5.1 576

    Dominican and Other Hispanic or Latino

    3,920 2,479 63.2 2,353 60.0 126 5.1 1,441

    Men

    1,835 1,292 70.4 1,232 67.1 61 4.7 543

    Women

    2,085 1,187 56.9 1,121 53.8 65 5.5 898

    Dominican

    1,592 1,019 64.0 963 60.5 56 5.5 572

    Men

    705 492 69.7 466 66.1 25 5.2 213

    Women

    886 528 59.5 497 56.0 31 5.8 359

    Other Hispanic or Latino

    2,328 1,460 62.7 1,390 59.7 70 4.8 868

    Men

    1,130 801 70.9 765 67.8 35 4.4 329

    Women

    1,198 659 55.0 624 52.1 34 5.2 539

    Hispanic or Latino

    42,734 28,336 66.3 27,012 63.2 1,323 4.7 14,398

    Men

    21,287 16,113 75.7 15,418 72.4 695 4.3 5,174

    Women

    21,447 12,223 57.0 11,594 54.1 628 5.1 9,224

    White Hispanic or Latino

    37,989 25,147 66.2 23,992 63.2 1,156 4.6 12,841

    Men

    18,963 14,408 76.0 13,802 72.8 606 4.2 4,554

    Women

    19,026 10,739 56.4 10,190 53.6 549 5.1 8,287

    Black Hispanic or Latino

    1,899 1,248 65.8 1,177 62.0 72 5.7 650

    Men

    874 620 70.9 584 66.8 36 5.8 254

    Women

    1,025 629 61.4 593 57.9 35 5.6 396

    Asian Hispanic or Latino

    436 293 67.3 280 64.4 13 4.4 142

    Men

    221 160 72.2 153 69.3 7 4.1 61

    Women

    214 134 62.3 127 59.3 6 4.7 81

    Non-Hispanic or Latino

    215,057 133,739 62.2 128,749 59.9 4,990 3.7 81,318

    Men

    103,391 69,983 67.7 67,280 65.1 2,703 3.9 33,408

    Women

    111,666 63,756 57.1 61,468 55.0 2,288 3.6 47,910

    White non-Hispanic or Latino

    162,232 100,667 62.1 97,469 60.1 3,198 3.2 61,565

    Men

    78,970 53,674 68.0 51,900 65.7 1,774 3.3 25,296

    Women

    83,262 46,993 56.4 45,569 54.7 1,424 3.0 36,269

    Black non-Hispanic or Latino

    30,862 19,166 62.1 17,915 58.0 1,251 6.5 11,696

    Men

    14,090 9,075 64.4 8,435 59.9 640 7.1 5,016

    Women

    16,772 10,091 60.2 9,480 56.5 611 6.1 6,681

    Asian non-Hispanic or Latino

    15,526 9,843 63.4 9,552 61.5 292 3.0 5,682

    Men

    7,250 5,187 71.5 5,035 69.4 152 2.9 2,063

    Women

    8,276 4,657 56.3 4,517 54.6 140 3.0 3,619

    Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White non-Hispanic, Black non-Hispanic, and Asian non-Hispanic) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
    Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

    Table 3. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by gender, age, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
    Age, gender, race, and
    Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
    Civilian
    noninsti-
    tutional
    population
    Civilian labor force Not
    in
    labor
    force
    Total Percent of
    population
    Employed Unemployed
    Total Percent of
    population
    Total Percent of
    labor force

    Total

    Total, 16 years and older

    257,791 162,075 62.9 155,761 60.4 6,314 3.9 95,716

    16 to 19 years

    16,765 5,885 35.1 5,126 30.6 759 12.9 10,879

    20 years and older

    241,026 156,190 64.8 150,635 62.5 5,555 3.6 84,836

    20 to 24 years

    21,239 15,099 71.1 14,051 66.2 1,048 6.9 6,140

    25 to 54 years

    126,390 103,705 82.1 100,314 79.4 3,391 3.3 22,685

    55 to 64 years

    42,114 27,354 65.0 26,565 63.1 789 2.9 14,760

    65 years and older

    51,283 10,032 19.6 9,705 18.9 327 3.3 41,251

    Men, 16 years and older

    124,678 86,096 69.1 82,698 66.3 3,398 3.9 38,582

    16 to 19 years

    8,493 2,909 34.2 2,487 29.3 422 14.5 5,585

    20 years and older

    116,185 83,188 71.6 80,211 69.0 2,976 3.6 32,997

    20 to 24 years

    10,639 7,786 73.2 7,190 67.6 596 7.7 2,853

    25 to 54 years

    62,294 55,440 89.0 53,673 86.2 1,768 3.2 6,854

    55 to 64 years

    20,263 14,436 71.2 14,001 69.1 435 3.0 5,827

    65 years and older

    22,988 5,525 24.0 5,348 23.3 177 3.2 17,464

    Women, 16 years and older

    133,112 75,978 57.1 73,063 54.9 2,916 3.8 57,134

    16 to 19 years

    8,272 2,977 36.0 2,639 31.9 338 11.3 5,295

    20 years and older

    124,841 73,002 58.5 70,424 56.4 2,578 3.5 51,839

    20 to 24 years

    10,600 7,312 69.0 6,861 64.7 452 6.2 3,288

    25 to 54 years

    64,096 48,264 75.3 46,641 72.8 1,623 3.4 15,831

    55 to 64 years

    21,851 12,918 59.1 12,564 57.5 354 2.7 8,933

    65 years and older

    28,295 4,508 15.9 4,358 15.4 150 3.3 23,787

    White

    Total, 16 years and older

    200,221 125,815 62.8 121,461 60.7 4,354 3.5 74,407

    16 to 19 years

    12,318 4,576 37.2 4,060 33.0 516 11.3 7,741

    20 years and older

    187,904 121,238 64.5 117,401 62.5 3,837 3.2 66,666

    20 to 24 years

    15,557 11,383 73.2 10,697 68.8 685 6.0 4,174

    25 to 54 years

    95,354 78,888 82.7 76,608 80.3 2,280 2.9 16,467

    55 to 64 years

    33,900 22,464 66.3 21,855 64.5 610 2.7 11,435

    65 years and older

    43,094 8,504 19.7 8,241 19.1 262 3.1 34,590

    Men, 16 years and older

    97,933 68,082 69.5 65,702 67.1 2,380 3.5 29,850

    16 to 19 years

    6,271 2,270 36.2 1,983 31.6 286 12.6 4,001

    20 years and older

    91,662 65,812 71.8 63,719 69.5 2,094 3.2 25,849

    20 to 24 years

    7,848 5,951 75.8 5,561 70.9 390 6.6 1,897

    25 to 54 years

    47,744 43,034 90.1 41,819 87.6 1,215 2.8 4,710

    55 to 64 years

    16,515 12,031 72.8 11,692 70.8 339 2.8 4,485

    65 years and older

    19,554 4,796 24.5 4,647 23.8 149 3.1 14,758

    Women, 16 years and older

    102,289 57,732 56.4 55,759 54.5 1,973 3.4 44,556

    16 to 19 years

    6,047 2,307 38.1 2,077 34.3 230 10.0 3,740

    20 years and older

    96,242 55,426 57.6 53,682 55.8 1,743 3.1 40,816

    20 to 24 years

    7,709 5,432 70.5 5,137 66.6 295 5.4 2,277

    25 to 54 years

    47,610 35,853 75.3 34,789 73.1 1,065 3.0 11,756

    55 to 64 years

    17,384 10,434 60.0 10,163 58.5 271 2.6 6,951

    65 years and older

    23,540 3,707 15.7 3,594 15.3 113 3.0 19,832

    Black or African American

    Total, 16 years and older

    32,761 20,414 62.3 19,091 58.3 1,322 6.5 12,347

    16 to 19 years

    2,499 763 30.5 596 23.8 167 21.9 1,736

    20 years and older

    30,262 19,651 64.9 18,496 61.1 1,155 5.9 10,611

    20 to 24 years

    3,172 2,173 68.5 1,940 61.2 234 10.8 998

    25 to 54 years

    17,205 13,776 80.1 13,016 75.7 760 5.5 3,429

    55 to 64 years

    5,037 2,846 56.5 2,728 54.2 117 4.1 2,191

    65 years and older

    4,848 856 17.7 812 16.7 44 5.2 3,992

    Men, 16 years and older

    14,964 9,694 64.8 9,018 60.3 676 7.0 5,270

    16 to 19 years

    1,241 367 29.6 273 22.0 94 25.7 874

    20 years and older

    13,723 9,327 68.0 8,745 63.7 582 6.2 4,396

    20 to 24 years

    1,535 1,046 68.1 913 59.5 133 12.7 490

    25 to 54 years

    7,932 6,560 82.7 6,191 78.0 369 5.6 1,373

    55 to 64 years

    2,282 1,343 58.9 1,281 56.1 62 4.6 939

    65 years and older

    1,974 379 19.2 361 18.3 18 4.7 1,595

    Women, 16 years and older

    17,797 10,720 60.2 10,073 56.6 646 6.0 7,077

    16 to 19 years

    1,257 395 31.4 322 25.6 73 18.4 862

    20 years and older

    16,539 10,324 62.4 9,751 59.0 573 5.6 6,215

    20 to 24 years

    1,636 1,128 68.9 1,027 62.7 101 8.9 509

    25 to 54 years

    9,273 7,216 77.8 6,825 73.6 391 5.4 2,057

    55 to 64 years

    2,755 1,503 54.5 1,448 52.5 55 3.7 1,252

    65 years and older

    2,875 478 16.6 451 15.7 26 5.5 2,397

    Asian

    Total, 16 years and older

    15,961 10,137 63.5 9,832 61.6 304 3.0 5,825

    16 to 19 years

    928 182 19.6 166 17.9 16 8.9 746

    20 years and older

    15,034 9,955 66.2 9,666 64.3 288 2.9 5,079

    20 to 24 years

    1,368 719 52.6 660 48.2 59 8.2 649

    25 to 54 years

    9,117 7,285 79.9 7,106 77.9 179 2.5 1,832

    55 to 64 years

    2,160 1,472 68.1 1,434 66.4 38 2.6 689

    65 years and older

    2,389 478 20.0 467 19.5 11 2.4 1,910

    Men, 16 years and older

    7,471 5,346 71.6 5,188 69.4 159 3.0 2,124

    16 to 19 years

    459 91 19.8 85 18.5 6 7.0 368

    20 years and older

    7,012 5,255 74.9 5,103 72.8 152 2.9 1,756

    20 to 24 years

    685 363 53.0 330 48.2 33 9.0 322

    25 to 54 years

    4,324 3,879 89.7 3,787 87.6 93 2.4 445

    55 to 64 years

    976 761 77.9 739 75.7 22 2.9 216

    65 years and older

    1,026 253 24.6 248 24.1 5 2.0 774

    Women, 16 years and older

    8,491 4,790 56.4 4,644 54.7 146 3.0 3,700

    16 to 19 years

    469 91 19.4 81 17.3 10 10.8 378

    20 years and older

    8,022 4,699 58.6 4,563 56.9 136 2.9 3,323

    20 to 24 years

    683 357 52.2 330 48.3 27 7.4 327

    25 to 54 years

    4,792 3,406 71.1 3,319 69.3 87 2.6 1,386

    55 to 64 years

    1,184 711 60.1 695 58.7 16 2.3 473

    65 years and older

    1,362 226 16.6 219 16.1 6 2.8 1,137

    Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

    Total, 16 years and older

    42,734 28,336 66.3 27,012 63.2 1,323 4.7 14,398

    16 to 19 years

    3,938 1,280 32.5 1,094 27.8 186 14.5 2,658

    20 years and older

    38,795 27,056 69.7 25,918 66.8 1,138 4.2 11,740

    20 to 24 years

    4,744 3,399 71.6 3,160 66.6 239 7.0 1,345

    25 to 54 years

    24,745 19,725 79.7 18,998 76.8 727 3.7 5,021

    55 to 64 years

    4,892 3,113 63.6 2,982 61.0 131 4.2 1,779

    65 years and older

    4,414 819 18.6 778 17.6 42 5.1 3,595

    Men, 16 years and older

    21,287 16,113 75.7 15,418 72.4 695 4.3 5,174

    16 to 19 years

    1,998 649 32.5 545 27.3 104 16.0 1,349

    20 years and older

    19,289 15,464 80.2 14,873 77.1 591 3.8 3,825

    20 to 24 years

    2,402 1,841 76.6 1,705 71.0 136 7.4 561

    25 to 54 years

    12,596 11,375 90.3 11,018 87.5 356 3.1 1,221

    55 to 64 years

    2,374 1,776 74.8 1,704 71.8 73 4.1 598

    65 years and older

    1,917 472 24.6 446 23.3 26 5.5 1,445

    Women, 16 years and older

    21,447 12,223 57.0 11,594 54.1 628 5.1 9,224

    16 to 19 years

    1,940 631 32.5 549 28.3 82 12.9 1,309

    20 years and older

    19,507 11,592 59.4 11,045 56.6 547 4.7 7,915

    20 to 24 years

    2,342 1,558 66.5 1,456 62.1 103 6.6 784

    25 to 54 years

    12,149 8,350 68.7 7,980 65.7 370 4.4 3,800

    55 to 64 years

    2,518 1,337 53.1 1,278 50.8 58 4.4 1,181

    65 years and older

    2,497 347 13.9 331 13.3 16 4.5 2,150

    Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
    Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

    Table 4. Labor force participation rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2018 annual averages (Percent)
    Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
    Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

    1972

    60.4 78.9 43.9 60.4 79.6 43.2 59.9 73.6 48.7 - - - - - -

    1973

    60.8 78.8 44.7 60.8 79.4 44.1 60.2 73.4 49.3 - - - 60.2 81.5 41.0

    1974

    61.3 78.7 45.7 61.4 79.4 45.2 59.8 72.9 49.0 - - - 61.1 81.7 42.4

    1975

    61.2 77.9 46.3 61.5 78.7 45.9 58.8 70.9 48.8 - - - 60.8 80.7 43.2

    1976

    61.6 77.5 47.3 61.8 78.4 46.9 59.0 70.0 49.8 - - - 60.8 79.6 44.3

    1977

    62.3 77.7 48.4 62.5 78.5 48.0 59.8 70.6 50.8 - - - 61.6 80.9 44.3

    1978

    63.2 77.9 50.0 63.3 78.6 49.4 61.5 71.5 53.1 - - - 62.9 81.1 46.6

    1979

    63.7 77.8 50.9 63.9 78.6 50.5 61.4 71.3 53.1 - - - 63.6 81.3 47.4

    1980

    63.8 77.4 51.5 64.1 78.2 51.2 61.0 70.3 53.1 - - - 64.0 81.4 47.4

    1981

    63.9 77.0 52.1 64.3 77.9 51.9 60.8 70.0 53.5 - - - 64.1 80.6 48.3

    1982

    64.0 76.6 52.6 64.3 77.4 52.4 61.0 70.1 53.7 - - - 63.6 79.7 48.1

    1983

    64.0 76.4 52.9 64.3 77.1 52.7 61.5 70.6 54.2 - - - 63.8 80.3 47.7

    1984

    64.4 76.4 53.6 64.6 77.1 53.3 62.2 70.8 55.2 - - - 64.9 80.6 49.6

    1985

    64.8 76.3 54.5 65.0 77.0 54.1 62.9 70.8 56.5 - - - 64.6 80.3 49.3

    1986

    65.3 76.3 55.3 65.5 76.9 55.0 63.3 71.2 56.9 - - - 65.4 81.0 50.1

    1987

    65.6 76.2 56.0 65.8 76.8 55.7 63.8 71.1 58.0 - - - 66.4 81.0 52.0

    1988

    65.9 76.2 56.6 66.2 76.9 56.4 63.8 71.0 58.0 - - - 67.4 81.9 53.2

    1989

    66.5 76.4 57.4 66.7 77.1 57.2 64.2 71.0 58.7 - - - 67.6 82.0 53.5

    1990

    66.5 76.4 57.5 66.9 77.1 57.4 64.0 71.0 58.3 - - - 67.4 81.4 53.1

    1991

    66.2 75.8 57.4 66.6 76.5 57.4 63.3 70.4 57.5 - - - 66.5 80.3 52.4

    1992

    66.4 75.8 57.8 66.8 76.5 57.7 63.9 70.7 58.5 - - - 66.8 80.7 52.8

    1993

    66.3 75.4 57.9 66.8 76.2 58.0 63.2 69.6 57.9 - - - 66.2 80.2 52.1

    1994

    66.6 75.1 58.8 67.1 75.9 58.9 63.4 69.1 58.7 - - - 66.1 79.2 52.9

    1995

    66.6 75.0 58.9 67.1 75.7 59.0 63.7 69.0 59.5 - - - 65.8 79.1 52.6

    1996

    66.8 74.9 59.3 67.2 75.8 59.1 64.1 68.7 60.4 - - - 66.5 79.6 53.4

    1997

    67.1 75.0 59.8 67.5 75.9 59.5 64.7 68.3 61.7 - - - 67.9 80.1 55.1

    1998

    67.1 74.9 59.8 67.3 75.6 59.4 65.6 69.0 62.8 - - - 67.9 79.8 55.6

    1999

    67.1 74.7 60.0 67.3 75.6 59.6 65.8 68.7 63.5 - - - 67.7 79.8 55.9

    2000

    67.1 74.8 59.9 67.3 75.5 59.5 65.8 69.2 63.1 67.2 76.1 59.2 69.7 81.5 57.5

    2001

    66.8 74.4 59.8 67.0 75.1 59.4 65.3 68.4 62.8 67.2 76.2 59.0 69.5 81.0 57.6

    2002

    66.6 74.1 59.6 66.8 74.8 59.3 64.8 68.4 61.8 67.2 75.9 59.1 69.1 80.2 57.6

    2003

    66.2 73.5 59.5 66.5 74.2 59.2 64.3 67.3 61.9 66.4 75.6 58.3 68.3 80.1 55.9

    2004

    66.0 73.3 59.2 66.3 74.1 58.9 63.8 66.7 61.5 65.9 75.0 57.6 68.6 80.4 56.1

    2005

    66.0 73.3 59.3 66.3 74.1 58.9 64.2 67.3 61.6 66.1 74.8 58.2 68.0 80.1 55.3

    2006

    66.2 73.5 59.4 66.5 74.3 59.0 64.1 67.0 61.7 66.2 75.0 58.3 68.7 80.7 56.1

    2007

    66.0 73.2 59.3 66.4 74.0 59.0 63.7 66.8 61.1 66.5 75.1 58.6 68.8 80.5 56.5

    2008

    66.0 73.0 59.5 66.3 73.7 59.2 63.7 66.7 61.3 67.0 75.3 59.4 68.5 80.2 56.2

    2009

    65.4 72.0 59.2 65.8 72.8 59.1 62.4 65.0 60.3 66.0 74.6 58.2 68.0 78.8 56.5

    2010

    64.7 71.2 58.6 65.1 72.0 58.5 62.2 65.0 59.9 64.7 73.2 57.0 67.5 77.8 56.5

    2011

    64.1 70.5 58.1 64.5 71.3 58.0 61.4 64.2 59.1 64.6 73.2 56.8 66.5 76.5 55.9

    2012

    63.7 70.2 57.7 64.0 71.0 57.4 61.5 63.6 59.8 63.9 72.2 56.5 66.4 76.1 56.6

    2013

    63.2 69.7 57.2 63.5 70.5 56.9 61.2 63.5 59.2 64.6 73.0 57.1 66.0 76.3 55.7

    2014

    62.9 69.2 57.0 63.1 69.8 56.7 61.2 63.6 59.2 63.6 72.4 55.8 66.1 76.1 56.0

    2015

    62.7 69.1 56.7 62.8 69.7 56.2 61.5 63.8 59.7 62.8 71.4 55.2 65.9 76.2 55.7

    2016

    62.8 69.2 56.8 62.9 69.8 56.3 61.6 64.1 59.4 63.2 72.1 55.5 65.8 76.0 55.8

    2017

    62.9 69.1 57.0 62.8 69.5 56.4 62.3 64.6 60.3 63.6 71.9 56.4 66.1 75.8 56.4

    2018

    62.9 69.1 57.1 62.8 69.5 56.4 62.3 64.8 60.2 63.5 71.6 56.4 66.3 75.7 57.0
    Table 4A. Labor force participation rates by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2018 annual averages (Percent)
    Year American Indian and Alaska Native Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Two or More Races
    Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

    2003

    64.4 71.0 58.0 68.9 75.0 63.9 67.6 73.2 62.4

    2004

    63.8 70.9 57.1 71.8 76.6 67.7 67.0 74.0 60.3

    2005

    63.5 70.0 57.2 73.4 77.1 69.8 67.0 72.0 62.3

    2006

    63.1 68.6 57.9 74.5 80.8 68.6 65.9 72.3 59.7

    2007

    63.3 69.9 57.0 73.0 78.4 68.2 66.3 71.9 60.8

    2008

    63.7 70.2 57.6 72.5 78.9 66.6 65.5 70.7 60.4

    2009

    59.0 64.1 54.2 69.4 77.3 62.3 65.6 70.4 61.0

    2010

    57.7 64.0 51.8 68.4 71.3 65.5 65.4 70.9 60.3

    2011

    59.2 65.2 53.2 69.4 75.6 63.6 64.0 68.9 59.5

    2012

    59.3 66.4 52.6 71.4 73.9 69.1 65.3 70.4 60.5

    2013

    59.2 65.3 53.3 70.0 73.7 66.6 63.3 69.2 57.8

    2014

    60.9 67.2 54.7 67.6 73.8 61.6 64.2 69.7 59.0

    2015

    60.6 65.9 55.5 66.6 73.7 59.7 64.5 68.4 60.9

    2016

    61.1 67.2 55.4 68.7 76.0 61.3 65.0 68.1 62.1

    2017

    60.3 65.8 54.8 67.0 72.6 61.7 66.9 70.7 63.3

    2018

    59.6 63.7 55.6 68.5 74.1 63.1 66.6 71.1 62.5

    Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000–2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.
    Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

    Table 5. Employment-population ratios by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2018 annual averages (Percent)
    Year Total White Black or African American Asian Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
    Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

    1972

    57.0 75.0 41.0 57.4 76.0 40.7 53.7 66.8 43.0 - - - - - -

    1973

    57.8 75.5 42.0 58.2 76.5 41.8 54.5 67.5 43.8 - - - 55.6 76.0 37.3

    1974

    57.8 74.9 42.6 58.3 75.9 42.4 53.5 65.8 43.5 - - - 56.2 75.7 38.4

    1975

    56.1 71.7 42.0 56.7 73.0 42.0 50.1 60.6 41.6 - - - 53.4 71.5 37.4

    1976

    56.8 72.0 43.2 57.5 73.4 43.2 50.8 60.6 42.8 - - - 53.8 71.1 38.6

    1977

    57.9 72.8 44.5 58.6 74.1 44.5 51.4 61.4 43.3 - - - 55.4 73.6 39.1

    1978

    59.3 73.8 46.4 60.0 75.0 46.3 53.6 63.3 45.8 - - - 57.2 74.9 41.3

    1979

    59.9 73.8 47.5 60.6 75.1 47.5 53.8 63.4 46.0 - - - 58.3 75.6 42.5

    1980

    59.2 72.0 47.7 60.0 73.4 47.8 52.3 60.4 45.7 - - - 57.6 73.5 42.4

    1981

    59.0 71.3 48.0 60.0 72.8 48.3 51.3 59.1 45.1 - - - 57.4 72.4 43.0

    1982

    57.8 69.0 47.7 58.8 70.6 48.1 49.4 56.0 44.2 - - - 54.9 68.9 41.3

    1983

    57.9 68.8 48.0 58.9 70.4 48.5 49.5 56.3 44.1 - - - 55.1 69.4 41.1

    1984

    59.5 70.7 49.5 60.5 72.1 49.8 52.3 59.2 46.7 - - - 57.9 72.1 44.2

    1985

    60.1 70.9 50.4 61.0 72.3 50.7 53.4 60.0 48.1 - - - 57.8 72.1 43.8

    1986

    60.7 71.0 51.4 61.5 72.3 51.7 54.1 60.6 48.8 - - - 58.5 72.5 44.7

    1987

    61.5 71.5 52.5 62.3 72.7 52.8 55.6 62.0 50.3 - - - 60.5 74.0 47.4

    1988

    62.3 72.0 53.4 63.1 73.2 53.8 56.3 62.7 51.2 - - - 61.9 75.3 48.8

    1989

    63.0 72.5 54.3 63.8 73.7 54.6 56.9 62.8 52.0 - - - 62.2 75.8 48.8

    1990

    62.8 72.0 54.3 63.7 73.3 54.7 56.7 62.6 51.9 - - - 61.9 74.9 48.6

    1991

    61.7 70.4 53.7 62.6 71.6 54.2 55.4 61.3 50.6 - - - 59.8 72.1 47.3

    1992

    61.5 69.8 53.8 62.4 71.1 54.2 54.9 59.9 50.8 - - - 59.1 71.2 46.8

    1993

    61.7 70.0 54.1 62.7 71.4 54.6 55.0 60.0 50.9 - - - 59.1 71.7 46.3

    1994

    62.5 70.4 55.3 63.5 71.8 55.8 56.1 60.8 52.3 - - - 59.5 71.7 47.2

    1995

    62.9 70.8 55.6 63.8 72.0 56.1 57.1 61.7 53.4 - - - 59.7 72.1 47.3

    1996

    63.2 70.9 56.0 64.1 72.3 56.3 57.4 61.1 54.4 - - - 60.6 73.3 47.9

    1997

    63.8 71.3 56.8 64.6 72.7 57.0 58.2 61.4 55.6 - - - 62.6 74.5 50.2

    1998

    64.1 71.6 57.1 64.7 72.7 57.1 59.7 62.9 57.2 - - - 63.1 74.7 51.0

    1999

    64.3 71.6 57.4 64.8 72.8 57.3 60.6 63.1 58.6 - - - 63.4 75.3 51.7

    2000

    64.4 71.9 57.5 64.9 73.0 57.4 60.9 63.6 58.6 64.8 73.3 57.1 65.7 77.4 53.6

    2001

    63.7 70.9 57.0 64.2 72.0 57.0 59.7 62.1 57.8 64.2 72.7 56.4 64.9 76.2 53.3

    2002

    62.7 69.7 56.3 63.4 70.8 56.4 58.1 61.1 55.8 63.2 71.3 55.8 63.9 74.5 52.9

    2003

    62.3 68.9 56.1 63.0 70.1 56.3 57.4 59.5 55.6 62.4 70.9 54.9 63.1 74.3 51.2

    2004

    62.3 69.2 56.0 63.1 70.4 56.1 57.2 59.3 55.5 63.0 71.6 55.1 63.8 75.1 51.8

    2005

    62.7 69.6 56.2 63.4 70.8 56.3 57.7 60.2 55.7 63.4 71.8 55.9 64.0 75.8 51.5

    2006

    63.1 70.1 56.6 63.8 71.3 56.6 58.4 60.6 56.5 64.2 72.7 56.5 65.2 76.8 52.8

    2007

    63.0 69.8 56.6 63.6 70.9 56.7 58.4 60.7 56.5 64.3 72.8 56.6 64.9 76.2 53.0

    2008

    62.2 68.5 56.2 62.8 69.7 56.3 57.3 59.1 55.8 64.3 72.2 57.2 63.3 74.1 51.9

    2009

    59.3 64.5 54.4 60.2 66.0 54.8 53.2 53.7 52.8 61.2 68.7 54.4 59.7 68.9 50.1

    2010

    58.5 63.7 53.6 59.4 65.1 54.0 52.3 53.1 51.7 59.9 67.5 53.0 59.0 68.0 49.6

    2011

    58.4 63.9 53.2 59.4 65.3 53.7 51.7 52.8 50.8 60.0 68.2 52.6 58.9 67.9 49.3

    2012

    58.6 64.4 53.1 59.4 65.8 53.3 53.0 54.1 52.2 60.1 68.1 53.1 59.5 68.6 50.4

    2013

    58.6 64.4 53.2 59.4 65.7 53.3 53.2 54.5 52.0 61.2 69.0 54.3 60.0 69.6 50.4

    2014

    59.0 64.9 53.5 59.7 66.1 53.7 54.3 55.9 52.9 60.4 68.6 53.3 61.2 71.0 51.4

    2015

    59.3 65.3 53.7 59.9 66.5 53.7 55.7 57.2 54.4 60.4 68.6 53.2 61.6 71.5 51.8

    2016

    59.7 65.8 54.1 60.2 66.7 54.0 56.4 58.3 54.8 60.9 69.6 53.4 62.0 71.9 52.3

    2017

    60.1 66.0 54.6 60.4 66.9 54.2 57.6 59.4 56.1 61.5 69.5 54.5 62.7 72.3 53.2

    2018

    60.4 66.3 54.9 60.7 67.1 54.5 58.3 60.3 56.6 61.6 69.4 54.7 63.2 72.4 54.1
    Table 5A. Employment-population ratios by gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2018 annual averages (Percent)
    Year American Indian and Alaska Native Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Two or More Races
    Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women

    2003

    57.7 63.1 52.4 63.6 69.8 58.4 61.4 66.4 56.8

    2004

    57.7 64.0 51.8 67.4 71.4 64.1 61.2 67.6 55.0

    2005

    57.6 63.9 51.5 70.2 73.4 67.1 61.6 66.3 57.2

    2006

    58.1 63.2 53.3 70.6 75.7 65.7 61.5 67.0 56.2

    2007

    58.1 64.3 52.3 69.4 74.2 65.3 61.5 66.5 56.6

    2008

    57.4 62.6 52.5 67.8 72.8 63.3 59.3 63.6 55.2

    2009

    51.2 54.2 48.3 61.8 68.3 56.0 56.7 60.4 53.2

    2010

    49.0 53.0 45.2 60.1 61.6 58.7 56.5 60.8 52.5

    2011

    50.5 55.2 45.9 62.2 67.0 57.7 55.3 59.2 51.7

    2012

    52.1 58.5 45.9 63.0 64.7 61.4 57.6 61.9 53.5

    2013

    51.6 56.6 46.9 62.9 65.5 60.4 56.4 61.3 51.7

    2014

    54.0 59.2 48.9 63.5 69.6 57.5 57.6 62.1 53.4

    2015

    54.6 58.6 50.8 62.8 69.5 56.3 59.0 62.8 55.6

    2016

    55.7 61.0 50.6 65.7 72.7 58.5 60.2 62.9 57.6

    2017

    55.6 60.3 50.9 62.9 68.7 57.4 62.4 65.8 59.2

    2018

    55.6 59.3 52.1 64.9 70.3 59.7 62.9 66.8 59.3

    Note: Beginning in 2003, estimates for White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander race groups include people who selected that race group only; people who selected more than one race group are included in the Two or More Races category. Prior to 2003, people who reported more than one race were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000–2002 are for Asians and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asian is a separate category, as is Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.
    Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

    Table 6. Employment status of people 25 years and older by educational attainment, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
    Employment status, gender, race, and
    Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
    Total, 25 years
    and older
    Less than a
    high school
    diploma
    High school
    graduates,
    no college(1)
    Some college,
    no degree
    Associate's
    degree
    Bachelor's
    degree and
    higher(2)

    Total

    Civilian noninstitutional population

    219,787 22,250 62,592 34,880 22,525 77,540

    Civilian labor force

    141,091 10,278 36,010 21,937 15,649 57,217

    Percent of population

    64.2 46.2 57.5 62.9 69.5 73.8

    Employed

    136,584 9,701 34,550 21,128 15,209 55,995

    Employment-population ratio

    62.1 43.6 55.2 60.6 67.5 72.2

    Unemployed

    4,507 576 1,461 808 440 1,222

    Unemployment rate

    3.2 5.6 4.1 3.7 2.8 2.1

    Men

    Civilian noninstitutional population

    105,546 11,110 31,216 16,679 9,829 36,711

    Civilian labor force

    75,401 6,537 21,145 11,667 7,383 28,670

    Percent of population

    71.4 58.8 67.7 70.0 75.1 78.1

    Employed

    73,021 6,201 20,294 11,279 7,182 28,066

    Employment-population ratio

    69.2 55.8 65.0 67.6 73.1 76.5

    Unemployed

    2,380 336 850 388 202 604

    Unemployment rate

    3.2 5.1 4.0 3.3 2.7 2.1

    Women

    Civilian noninstitutional population

    114,241 11,140 31,375 18,201 12,696 40,829

    Civilian labor force

    65,689 3,741 14,866 10,269 8,266 28,548

    Percent of population

    57.5 33.6 47.4 56.4 65.1 69.9

    Employed

    63,563 3,501 14,256 9,850 8,028 27,929

    Employment-population ratio

    55.6 31.4 45.4 54.1 63.2 68.4

    Unemployed

    2,127 240 610 420 238 619

    Unemployment rate

    3.2 6.4 4.1 4.1 2.9 2.2

    White

    Civilian noninstitutional population

    172,347 16,900 49,050 27,256 18,021 61,121

    Civilian labor force

    109,855 8,126 27,859 16,818 12,383 44,669

    Percent of population

    63.7 48.1 56.8 61.7 68.7 73.1

    Employed

    106,704 7,713 26,870 16,281 12,067 43,772

    Employment-population ratio

    61.9 45.6 54.8 59.7 67.0 71.6

    Unemployed

    3,152 413 989 537 316 897

    Unemployment rate

    2.9 5.1 3.5 3.2 2.5 2.0

    Men

    Civilian noninstitutional population

    83,814 8,726 24,591 13,211 7,979 29,306

    Civilian labor force

    59,861 5,385 16,703 9,201 5,962 22,611

    Percent of population

    71.4 61.7 67.9 69.6 74.7 77.2

    Employed

    58,158 5,138 16,122 8,930 5,814 22,153

    Employment-population ratio

    69.4 58.9 65.6 67.6 72.9 75.6

    Unemployed

    1,703 247 581 271 148 458

    Unemployment rate

    2.8 4.6 3.5 2.9 2.5 2.0

    Women

    Civilian noninstitutional population

    88,534 8,174 24,458 14,044 10,042 31,815

    Civilian labor force

    49,994 2,741 11,156 7,617 6,421 22,058

    Percent of population

    56.5 33.5 45.6 54.2 63.9 69.3

    Employed

    48,546 2,575 10,748 7,351 6,253 21,619

    Employment-population ratio

    54.8 31.5 43.9 52.3 62.3 68.0

    Unemployed

    1,448 167 408 266 168 439

    Unemployment rate

    2.9 6.1 3.7 3.5 2.6 2.0

    Black or African American

    Civilian noninstitutional population

    27,091 3,139 8,927 5,174 2,838 7,011

    Civilian labor force

    17,478 1,126 5,343 3,479 2,079 5,451

    Percent of population

    64.5 35.9 59.8 67.2 73.2 77.7

    Employed

    16,556 1,009 4,986 3,276 1,994 5,291

    Employment-population ratio

    61.1 32.1 55.8 63.3 70.3 75.5

    Unemployed

    922 117 357 203 84 161

    Unemployment rate

    5.3 10.4 6.7 5.8 4.1 2.9

    Men

    Civilian noninstitutional population

    12,188 1,404 4,399 2,320 1,137 2,927

    Civilian labor force

    8,281 567 2,862 1,630 873 2,348

    Percent of population

    67.9 40.4 65.1 70.3 76.8 80.2

    Employed

    7,832 505 2,661 1,543 840 2,283

    Employment-population ratio

    64.3 35.9 60.5 66.5 73.8 78.0

    Unemployed

    449 63 201 87 34 65

    Unemployment rate

    5.4 11.0 7.0 5.3 3.9 2.8

    Women

    Civilian noninstitutional population

    14,903 1,735 4,528 2,854 1,701 4,084

    Civilian labor force

    9,197 559 2,481 1,849 1,205 3,103

    Percent of population

    61.7 32.2 54.8 64.8 70.9 76.0

    Employed

    8,724 504 2,325 1,733 1,155 3,007

    Employment-population ratio

    58.5 29.1 51.3 60.7 67.9 73.6

    Unemployed

    473 54 156 116 50 96

    Unemployment rate

    5.1 9.7 6.3 6.3 4.2 3.1

    Asian

    Civilian noninstitutional population

    13,666 1,218 2,549 1,171 914 7,814

    Civilian labor force

    9,235 493 1,504 770 641 5,827

    Percent of population

    67.6 40.5 59.0 65.8 70.2 74.6

    Employed

    9,006 479 1,468 752 621 5,687

    Employment-population ratio

    65.9 39.3 57.6 64.2 68.0 72.8

    Unemployed

    229 14 36 19 20 139

    Unemployment rate

    2.5 2.9 2.4 2.5 3.1 2.4

    Men

    Civilian noninstitutional population

    6,327 457 1,133 572 386 3,779

    Civilian labor force

    4,892 250 800 416 297 3,130

    Percent of population

    77.3 54.7 70.6 72.7 76.8 82.8

    Employed

    4,773 242 781 406 285 3,060

    Employment-population ratio

    75.4 52.8 68.9 71.0 73.9 81.0

    Unemployed

    119 9 19 10 11 70

    Unemployment rate

    2.4 3.4 2.4 2.5 3.9 2.2

    Women

    Civilian noninstitutional population

    7,339 761 1,416 600 528 4,035

    Civilian labor force

    4,343 243 704 355 345 2,697

    Percent of population

    59.2 31.9 49.7 59.2 65.3 66.8

    Employed

    4,233 237 687 346 336 2,627

    Employment-population ratio

    57.7 31.2 48.5 57.7 63.7 65.1

    Unemployed

    110 6 17 9 8 70

    Unemployment rate

    2.5 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6

    Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

    Civilian noninstitutional population

    34,051 9,737 10,637 4,734 2,745 6,198

    Civilian labor force

    23,657 5,753 7,439 3,469 2,085 4,911

    Percent of population

    69.5 59.1 69.9 73.3 75.9 79.2

    Employed

    22,758 5,488 7,145 3,341 2,012 4,770

    Employment-population ratio

    66.8 56.4 67.2 70.6 73.3 77.0

    Unemployed

    899 265 293 128 72 141

    Unemployment rate

    3.8 4.6 3.9 3.7 3.5 2.9

    Men

    Civilian noninstitutional population

    16,887 5,038 5,538 2,345 1,172 2,794

    Civilian labor force

    13,623 3,828 4,528 1,881 982 2,404

    Percent of population

    80.7 76.0 81.8 80.2 83.8 86.0

    Employed

    13,168 3,679 4,369 1,822 951 2,346

    Employment-population ratio

    78.0 73.0 78.9 77.7 81.2 84.0

    Unemployed

    455 149 159 58 31 57

    Unemployment rate

    3.3 3.9 3.5 3.1 3.2 2.4

    Women

    Civilian noninstitutional population

    17,164 4,698 5,099 2,390 1,573 3,404

    Civilian labor force

    10,034 1,925 2,911 1,588 1,102 2,508

    Percent of population

    58.5 41.0 57.1 66.5 70.1 73.7

    Employed

    9,589 1,809 2,776 1,519 1,061 2,424

    Employment-population ratio

    55.9 38.5 54.4 63.6 67.4 71.2

    Unemployed

    444 116 134 69 41 84

    Unemployment rate

    4.4 6.0 4.6 4.4 3.7 3.3

    (1) Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.
    (2) Includes people with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.

    Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
    Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

    Table 7. Employed people by occupation, gender, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2018 annual averages
    Occupation and gender Total White Black or
    African
    American
    Asian Hispanic
    or Latino
    ethnicity

    Total, 16 years and older (In thousands)

    155,761 121,461 19,091 9,832 27,012

    Percent

    100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

    Management, professional, and related occupations

    40.1 40.8 31.3 53.7 22.4

    Management, business, and financial operations occupations

    16.6 17.5 11.1 18.0 9.4

    Management occupations

    11.7 12.6 7.2 11.0 6.9

    Business and financial operations occupations

    4.9 4.9 3.9 7.0 2.4

    Professional and related occupations

    23.5 23.3 20.2 35.7 13.0

    Computer and mathematical occupations

    3.3 2.8 2.3 11.5 1.4

    Architecture and engineering occupations

    2.1 2.1 1.1 4.0 1.1

    Life, physical, and social science occupations

    1.0 1.0 0.6 2.0 0.5

    Community and social service occupations

    1.7 1.6 2.9 1.1 1.2

    Legal occupations

    1.2 1.3 0.7 0.9 0.7

    Education, training, and library occupations

    6.0 6.2 5.2 5.0 3.7

    Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

    2.2 2.3 1.3 1.9 1.5

    Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

    6.0 5.8 6.2 9.5 3.0

    Service occupations

    17.2 15.9 24.4 16.5 24.3

    Healthcare support occupations

    2.3 1.9 5.0 2.1 2.5

    Protective service occupations

    2.1 1.9 3.4 0.8 1.6

    Food preparation and serving related occupations

    5.3 5.0 6.4 5.4 7.9

    Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

    3.8 3.7 4.6 1.8 8.4

    Personal care and service occupations

    3.8 3.4 5.1 6.4 3.9

    Sales and office occupations

    21.5 21.6 22.4 16.8 20.6

    Sales and related occupations

    10.1 10.4 9.1 8.6 9.6

    Office and administrative support occupations

    11.3 11.2 13.3 8.2 11.0

    Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

    9.3 10.3 5.8 3.3 17.1

    Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

    0.7 0.8 0.2 0.3 1.9

    Construction and extraction occupations

    5.4 6.0 3.1 1.4 11.4

    Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

    3.2 3.4 2.5 1.7 3.7

    Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

    11.9 11.4 16.1 9.6 15.7

    Production occupations

    5.5 5.4 6.1 5.1 7.5

    Transportation and material moving occupations

    6.4 5.9 10.0 4.5 8.2

    Men, 16 years and older (In thousands)

    82,698 65,702 9,018 5,188 15,418

    Percent

    100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

    Management, professional, and related occupations

    36.6 37.1 25.9 54.9 18.8

    Management, business, and financial operations occupations

    17.5 18.6 10.8 18.2 9.1

    Management occupations

    13.3 14.3 7.6 12.3 7.2

    Business and financial operations occupations

    4.2 4.3 3.2 5.9 1.9

    Professional and related occupations

    19.1 18.5 15.1 36.7 9.7

    Computer and mathematical occupations

    4.6 4.0 3.0 15.9 1.8

    Architecture and engineering occupations

    3.3 3.3 1.8 6.1 1.6

    Life, physical, and social science occupations

    1.0 1.0 0.6 2.0 0.5

    Community and social service occupations

    1.1 1.0 1.8 0.9 0.6

    Legal occupations

    1.1 1.3 0.5 0.6 0.5

    Education, training, and library occupations

    3.0 3.0 2.8 3.5 1.6

    Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

    2.2 2.2 1.9 1.6 1.5

    Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

    2.8 2.6 2.8 6.1 1.5

    Service occupations

    13.8 12.8 20.3 12.7 19.0

    Healthcare support occupations

    0.6 0.4 1.4 0.9 0.6

    Protective service occupations

    3.0 2.9 4.6 1.3 2.2

    Food preparation and serving related occupations

    4.4 4.0 6.2 5.3 7.0

    Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

    4.2 4.1 5.4 1.9 7.8

    Personal care and service occupations

    1.7 1.4 2.7 3.4 1.4

    Sales and office occupations

    15.7 15.6 17.3 13.9 13.9

    Sales and related occupations

    9.7 10.0 8.3 8.4 7.7

    Office and administrative support occupations

    6.1 5.6 9.0 5.5 6.2

    Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

    16.6 18.1 11.5 5.7 28.2

    Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

    1.0 1.2 0.3 0.3 2.4

    Construction and extraction occupations

    9.7 10.7 6.3 2.5 19.4

    Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

    5.8 6.2 4.9 2.9 6.3

    Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

    17.2 16.4 25.0 12.8 20.2

    Production occupations

    7.4 7.4 8.4 5.6 8.6

    Transportation and material moving occupations

    9.8 9.1 16.6 7.2 11.6

    Women, 16 years and older (In thousands)

    73,063 55,759 10,073 4,644 11,594

    Percent

    100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

    Management, professional, and related occupations

    44.0 45.2 36.2 52.5 27.2

    Management, business, and financial operations occupations

    15.6 16.3 11.4 17.8 9.8

    Management occupations

    10.0 10.7 6.9 9.5 6.6

    Business and financial operations occupations

    5.6 5.6 4.5 8.2 3.2

    Professional and related occupations

    28.4 28.9 24.8 34.7 17.4

    Computer and mathematical occupations

    1.8 1.5 1.6 6.6 0.9

    Architecture and engineering occupations

    0.7 0.7 0.5 1.6 0.3

    Life, physical, and social science occupations

    1.0 1.0 0.6 1.9 0.5

    Community and social service occupations

    2.4 2.3 3.8 1.3 1.9

    Legal occupations

    1.3 1.4 1.0 1.3 0.9

    Education, training, and library occupations

    9.3 10.1 7.3 6.5 6.5

    Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

    2.2 2.4 0.7 2.2 1.5

    Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

    9.7 9.6 9.3 13.3 4.9

    Service occupations

    21.1 19.6 28.0 20.8 31.4

    Healthcare support occupations

    4.3 3.7 8.2 3.5 5.0

    Protective service occupations

    1.0 0.8 2.3 0.3 0.9

    Food preparation and serving related occupations

    6.2 6.1 6.5 5.6 9.1

    Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

    3.3 3.3 3.8 1.8 9.2

    Personal care and service occupations

    6.3 5.7 7.3 9.7 7.2

    Sales and office occupations

    28.0 28.7 27.0 20.0 29.5

    Sales and related occupations

    10.7 10.9 9.8 8.8 12.1

    Office and administrative support occupations

    17.3 17.8 17.2 11.3 17.4

    Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations

    1.0 1.1 0.6 0.5 2.3

    Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

    0.4 0.4 0.1 0.2 1.2

    Construction and extraction occupations

    0.4 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.8

    Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

    0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2

    Production, transportation, and material moving occupations

    5.9 5.4 8.1 6.2 9.6

    Production occupations

    3.4 3.1 4.1 4.5 5.9

    Transportation and material moving occupations

    2.5 2.2 4.1 1.6 3.7

    Note: Estimates for the above race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. People whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
    Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.

    Table 8. Employed people by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2018 annual averages (Numbers in thousands)
    Occupation Total
    employed
    Percent of total employed
    White Black or
    African
    American
    Asian Hispanic
    or Latino
    ethnicity

    Total, 16 years and older

    155,761 78.0 12.3 6.3 17.3

    Management, professional, and related occupations

    62,436 79.4 9.6 8.5 9.7

    Management, business, and financial operations occupations

    25,850 82.4 8.2 6.8 9.8

    Management occupations

    18,263 83.9 7.6 5.9 10.3

    Chief executives

    1,573 89.5 3.5 5.9 6.1

    General and operations managers

    1,037 84.5 7.5 4.8 10.5

    Legislators

    18 - - - -

    Advertising and promotions managers

    44 - - - -

    Marketing and sales managers

    1,083 85.8 6.7 5.4 9.7

    Public relations and fundraising managers

    69 85.8 10.7 3.1 3.1

    Administrative services managers

    161 85.4 7.4 3.0 13.0

    Computer and information systems managers

    623 77.0 5.8 14.3 6.6

    Financial managers

    1,231 81.7 8.1 7.4 9.4

    Compensation and benefits managers

    23 - - - -

    Human resources managers

    313 78.1 12.8 6.3 10.2

    Training and development managers

    58 86.3 10.1 0.0 15.5

    Industrial production managers

    264 85.7 6.3 6.0 12.5

    Purchasing managers

    219 85.3 9.0 4.0 10.7

    Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

    303 84.9 7.2 4.4 13.7

    Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

    991 96.1 0.9 1.4 5.1

    Construction managers

    1,021 91.8 3.1 2.4 15.3

    Education administrators

    955 79.0 14.4 3.4 10.5

    Architectural and engineering managers

    156 84.5 5.0 9.9 4.6

    Food service managers

    1,273 75.7 10.7 10.0 18.5

    Funeral service managers

    3 - - - -

    Gaming managers

    28 - - - -

    Lodging managers

    153 76.2 11.1 10.2 11.5

    Medical and health services managers

    639 80.9 11.5 5.0 9.0

    Natural sciences managers

    9 - - - -

    Postmasters and mail superintendents

    24 - - - -

    Property, real estate, and community association managers

    717 85.5 7.3 4.6 13.6

    Social and community service managers

    437 78.4 13.8 4.0 7.6

    Emergency management directors

    10 - - - -

    Managers, all other

    4,827 83.2 7.8 6.5 9.9

    Business and financial operations occupations

    7,587 78.8 9.8 9.1 8.7

    Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes

    54 79.3 7.5 11.0 12.2

    Buyers and purchasing agents, farm products

    12 - - - -

    Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products

    193 80.7 10.7 5.7 11.1

    Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products

    244 84.3 8.0 5.0 7.6

    Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators

    344 74.9 19.1 3.7 10.9

    Compliance officers

    281 82.3 11.3 5.4 6.9

    Cost estimators

    117 93.3 1.9 4.0 10.5

    Human resources workers

    664 79.2 10.5 7.0 13.2

    Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

    48 - - - -

    Training and development specialists

    120 76.2 15.3 2.9 8.7

    Logisticians

    128 75.7 12.1 8.1 10.1

    Management analysts

    944 77.6 8.3 12.3 6.5

    Meeting, convention, and event planners

    126 77.7 8.6 5.3 10.5

    Fundraisers

    96 86.9 7.7 3.2 5.4

    Market research analysts and marketing specialists

    355 81.8 5.8 11.6 11.4

    Business operations specialists, all other

    236 70.6 15.8 9.0 9.4

    Accountants and auditors

    1,929 75.8 9.3 12.7 7.6

    Appraisers and assessors of real estate

    84 83.9 10.7 4.0 4.2

    Budget analysts

    51 72.6 11.2 14.5 13.8

    Credit analysts

    26 - - - -

    Financial analysts

    307 76.1 8.1 14.1 5.5

    Personal financial advisors

    537 86.3 5.0 6.9 6.6

    Insurance underwriters

    119 80.7 13.7 5.3 6.2

    Financial examiners

    13 - - - -

    Credit counselors and loan officers

    350 85.5 7.6 4.3 13.0

    Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

    47 - - - -

    Tax preparers

    113 76.1 16.7 5.1 13.1

    Financial specialists, all other

    48 - - - -

    Professional and related occupations

    36,586 77.2 10.5 9.6 9.6

    Computer and mathematical occupations

    5,126 67.0 8.4 22.0 7.5

    Computer and information research scientists

    19 - - - -

    Computer systems analysts

    652 66.5 10.0 20.4 7.9

    Information security analysts

    97 76.8 12.3 8.5 6.8

    Computer programmers

    477 68.8 9.3 19.4 7.8

    Software developers, applications and systems software

    1,682 58.6 3.9 35.4 5.3

    Web developers

    208 81.5 5.4 8.9 7.2

    Computer support specialists

    566 72.4 12.6 12.0 9.8

    Database administrators

    108 71.3 8.2 16.7 9.5

    Network and computer systems administrators

    204 75.8 12.1 8.5 9.3

    Computer network architects

    114 73.0 9.4 14.7 9.9

    Computer occupations, all other

    732 72.1 11.4 14.9 9.5

    Actuaries

    33 - - - -

    Mathematicians

    3 - - - -

    Operations research analysts

    131 76.9 10.9 9.8 9.9

    Statisticians

    90 57.0 15.3 25.5 3.7

    Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations

    8 - - - -

    Architecture and engineering occupations

    3,263 79.3 6.5 11.9 8.9

    Architects, except naval

    239 83.5 4.5 11.5 10.1

    Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists

    47 - - - -

    Aerospace engineers

    147 70.3 7.1 17.6 7.8

    Agricultural engineers

    5 - - - -

    Biomedical engineers

    11 - - - -

    Chemical engineers

    72 73.7 8.9 17.3 1.9

    Civil engineers

    456 84.8 4.4 9.3 7.9

    Computer hardware engineers

    71 58.0 6.9 30.9 14.1

    Electrical and electronics engineers

    269 70.2 8.4 17.8 8.1

    Environmental engineers

    36 - - - -

    Industrial engineers, including health and safety

    246 83.2 4.9 9.0 7.4

    Marine engineers and naval architects

    17 - - - -

    Materials engineers

    41 - - - -

    Mechanical engineers

    333 80.0 3.5 15.0 5.5

    Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engineers

    8 - - - -

    Nuclear engineers

    14 - - - -

    Petroleum engineers

    27 - - - -

    Engineers, all other

    576 77.0 5.9 15.4 9.2

    Drafters

    133 88.5 4.8 4.6 11.0

    Engineering technicians, except drafters

    439 78.4 12.0 6.2 11.1

    Surveying and mapping technicians

    76 90.8 4.3 1.0 12.9

    Life, physical, and social science occupations

    1,529 78.1 7.1 12.8 8.7

    Agricultural and food scientists

    37 - - - -

    Biological scientists

    104 83.6 1.6 13.7 3.6

    Conservation scientists and foresters

    22 - - - -

    Medical scientists

    169 68.8 9.5 20.7 8.6

    Life scientists, all other

    1 - - - -

    Astronomers and physicists

    20 - - - -

    Atmospheric and space scientists

    12 - - - -

    Chemists and materials scientists

    118 78.1 4.2 16.8 7.7

    Environmental scientists and geoscientists

    100 90.4 7.8 1.1 8.4

    Physical scientists, all other

    305 65.9 4.7 26.0 6.1

    Economists

    36 - - - -

    Survey researchers

    3 - - - -

    Psychologists

    224 89.0 7.7 3.0 11.2

    Sociologists

    5 - - - -

    Urban and regional planners

    29 - - - -

    Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers

    46 - - - -

    Agricultural and food science technicians

    36 - - - -

    Biological technicians

    19 - - - -

    Chemical technicians

    68 85.7 8.9 3.0 17.6

    Geological and petroleum technicians

    12 - - - -

    Nuclear technicians

    10 - - - -

    Social science research assistants

    2 - - - -

    Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians

    152 77.8 9.1 11.5 11.2

    Community and social service occupations

    2,680 71.8 20.4 3.9 12.1

    Counselors

    895 70.0 22.2 3.9 12.7

    Social workers

    835 68.9 23.6 3.5 13.4

    Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists

    104 69.3 27.0 0.6 15.9

    Social and human service assistants

    208 67.7 21.1 4.1 18.6

    Miscellaneous community and social service specialists, including health educators and community health workers

    71 68.8 21.5 3.3 12.4

    Clergy

    415 80.3 12.5 4.3 6.4

    Directors, religious activities and education

    76 79.7 8.2 10.6 8.3

    Religious workers, all other

    76 88.3 6.9 4.0 5.1

    Legal occupations

    1,891 85.7 7.3 4.7 9.9

    Lawyers

    1,199 88.0 5.5 4.9 6.1

    Judicial law clerks

    13 - - - -

    Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers

    80 85.4 13.3 1.2 6.7

    Paralegals and legal assistants

    444 79.1 11.3 5.3 18.5

    Miscellaneous legal support workers

    156 86.8 7.2 2.9 16.6

    Education, training, and library occupations

    9,313 81.5 10.6 5.2 10.7

    Postsecondary teachers

    1,417 75.7 7.9 13.7 7.3

    Preschool and kindergarten teachers

    716 75.8 16.0 4.0 14.5

    Elementary and middle school teachers

    3,421 83.5 11.1 3.3 10.3

    Secondary school teachers

    1,062 88.3 7.3 2.6 9.0

    Special education teachers

    369 87.8 8.5 1.6 7.6

    Other teachers and instructors

    905 78.8 11.4 6.1 10.5

    Archivists, curators, and museum technicians

    45 - - - -

    Librarians

    178 85.5 6.6 4.7 8.4

    Library technicians

    33 - - - -

    Teacher assistants

    994 78.7 12.9 4.6 17.4

    Other education, training, and library workers

    173 79.1 12.8 5.4 14.3

    Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations

    3,362 83.6 7.4 5.5 11.8

    Artists and related workers

    232 82.7 6.0 5.8 9.6

    Designers

    984 86.5 3.7 7.2 13.1

    Actors

    36 - - - -

    Producers and directors

    201 83.6 11.3 2.3 7.1

    Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers

    359 81.9 10.7 2.4 11.8

    Dancers and choreographers

    24 - - - -

    Musicians, singers, and related workers

    202 75.9 15.1 5.9 10.5

    Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers, all other

    68 68.3 11.3 9.7 8.0

    Announcers

    56 74.5 22.3 0.5 18.7

    News analysts, reporters and correspondents

    79 80.9 8.7 4.1 15.2

    Public relations specialists

    140 86.8 7.1 4.9 10.0

    Editors

    160 91.7 1.7 4.4 10.3

    Technical writers

    69 82.4 8.3 5.6 4.8

    Writers and authors

    227 89.1 5.4 4.0 4.5

    Miscellaneous media and communication workers

    111 72.9 6.0 16.0 24.9

    Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators

    120 80.6 11.5 5.7 16.3

    Photographers

    208 83.6 6.8 5.8 11.4

    Television, video, and motion picture camera operators and editors

    82 85.6 9.5 1.7 15.7

    Media and communication equipment workers, all other

    5 - - - -

    Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

    9,420 75.2 12.6 9.9 8.5

    Chiropractors

    63 92.8 0.9 4.0 3.0

    Dentists

    162 79.0 1.6 17.6 4.3

    Dietitians and nutritionists

    104 78.6 9.6 9.1 9.6

    Optometrists

    54 84.9 2.1 9.1 8.5

    Pharmacists

    348 67.9 7.2 23.1 4.4

    Physicians and surgeons

    1,094 70.8 7.6 19.8 7.4

    Physician assistants

    132 90.3 2.9 5.1 8.2

    Podiatrists

    11 - - - -

    Audiologists

    10 - - - -

    Occupational therapists

    116 91.1 2.5 6.4 4.2

    Physical therapists

    286 76.4 7.4 14.3 4.3

    Radiation therapists

    16 - - - -

    Recreational therapists

    11 - - - -

    Respiratory therapists

    108 64.9 17.3 13.9 11.6

    Speech-language pathologists

    152 94.1 3.5 1.2 4.8

    Exercise physiologists

    5 - - - -

    Therapists, all other

    237 75.1 18.1 5.3 8.8

    Veterinarians

    102 92.9 0.0 4.1 2.3

    Registered nurses

    3,213 75.5 13.1 9.0 7.2

    Nurse anesthetists

    26 - - - -

    Nurse midwives

    3 - - - -

    Nurse practitioners

    212 79.1 11.2 8.8 2.6

    Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other

    40 - - - -

    Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

    318 70.0 18.6 8.5 12.9

    Dental hygienists

    178 88.3 5.6 3.8 8.6

    Diagnostic related technologists and technicians

    346 79.5 11.8 5.6 14.7

    Emergency medical technicians and paramedics

    214 84.3 11.9 2.2 13.9

    Health practitioner support technologists and technicians

    694 75.5 14.1 6.9 15.0

    Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

    658 62.0 30.4 5.1 11.5

    Medical records and health information technicians

    171 72.3 15.5 9.2 9.2

    Opticians, dispensing

    61 85.4 7.3 4.9 6.8

    Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

    139 59.8 24.1 14.4 12.3

    Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

    137 81.4 10.2 4.1 10.8

    Service occupations

    26,854 72.0 17.3 6.1 24.4

    Healthcare support occupations

    3,629 64.3 26.2 5.7 18.3

    Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides

    2,035 55.8 35.8 5.4 16.3

    Occupational therapy assistants and aides

    35 - - - -

    Physical therapist assistants and aides

    88 85.0 6.1 6.7 7.1

    Massage therapists

    155 73.7 9.2 10.2 13.9

    Dental assistants

    293 80.8 9.9 3.5 27.7

    Medical assistants

    570 74.1 15.3 4.5 28.6

    Medical transcriptionists

    44 - - - -

    Pharmacy aides

    34 - - - -

    Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers

    56 84.5 7.0 2.8 9.4

    Phlebotomists

    115 72.7 16.9 7.6 19.6

    Miscellaneous healthcare support occupations, including medical equipment preparers

    204 63.5 26.4 8.6 11.9

    Protective service occupations

    3,203 73.5 20.1 2.4 13.8

    First-line supervisors of correctional officers

    45 - - - -

    First-line supervisors of police and detectives

    88 88.8 9.2 0.4 9.4

    First-line supervisors of fire fighting and prevention workers

    49 - - - -

    First-line supervisors of protective service workers, all other

    86 72.5 22.1 1.8 8.7

    Firefighters

    306 87.1 8.9 1.1 7.4

    Fire inspectors

    23 - - - -

    Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers

    406 67.0 29.0 1.2 13.7

    Detectives and criminal investigators

    164 85.3 10.2 1.0 11.2

    Fish and game wardens

    7 - - - -

    Parking enforcement workers

    4 - - - -

    Police and sheriff's patrol officers

    728 81.7 12.7 2.1 13.5

    Transit and railroad police

    2 - - - -

    Animal control workers

    19 - - - -

    Private detectives and investigators

    96 78.2 15.7 3.3 20.2

    Security guards and gaming surveillance officers

    958 60.0 30.7 3.9 16.8

    Crossing guards

    66 58.4 26.5 1.9 20.9

    Transportation security screeners

    41 - - - -

    Lifeguards and other recreational, and all other protective service workers

    117 85.2 6.5 4.0 9.7

    Food preparation and serving related occupations

    8,220 73.2 14.8 6.5 25.9

    Chefs and head cooks

    427 61.0 17.2 16.6 26.6

    First-line supervisors of food preparation and serving workers

    563 74.5 17.8 2.8 16.8

    Cooks

    2,067 71.7 17.6 6.3 34.7

    Food preparation workers

    988 71.1 15.9 6.2 26.2

    Bartenders

    474 84.3 7.3 2.9 15.1

    Combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food

    322 73.2 17.8 3.5 21.0

    Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop

    202 74.6 15.3 4.9 18.0

    Waiters and waitresses

    2,020 76.0 10.7 7.6 22.6

    Food servers, nonrestaurant

    226 61.2 25.5 8.4 22.2

    Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers

    309 73.1 13.5 6.0 29.2

    Dishwashers

    263 74.3 13.2 5.7 27.9

    Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

    354 75.1 12.9 4.5 27.0

    Food preparation and serving related workers, all other

    5 - - - -

    Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

    5,854 77.3 14.8 3.1 38.8

    First-line supervisors of housekeeping and janitorial workers

    339 75.5 15.9 3.6 25.1

    First-line supervisors of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers

    254 88.3 6.5 1.5 26.2

    Janitors and building cleaners

    2,342 73.0 19.1 3.5 32.8

    Maids and housekeeping cleaners

    1,512 74.1 16.1 4.5 49.3

    Pest control workers

    79 84.9 10.6 0.0 12.2

    Grounds maintenance workers

    1,328 86.5 7.5 1.0 45.0

    Personal care and service occupations

    5,947 69.2 16.3 10.5 17.8

    First-line supervisors of gaming workers

    187 79.8 10.4 4.1 10.2

    First-line supervisors of personal service workers

    208 69.5 11.9 17.8 9.5

    Animal trainers

    55 87.2 1.7 4.4 10.5

    Nonfarm animal caretakers

    268 92.1 3.8 1.8 9.8

    Gaming services workers

    102 49.7 10.6 30.3 6.7

    Motion picture projectionists

    1 - - - -

    Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers

    35 - - - -

    Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers

    210 80.5 7.7 5.5 16.8

    Embalmers and funeral attendants

    17 - - - -

    Morticians, undertakers, and funeral directors

    34 - - - -

    Barbers

    132 62.0 30.2 5.3 27.3

    Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

    834 75.7 14.2 7.3 17.6

    Miscellaneous personal appearance workers

    449 31.2 9.1 57.2 10.8

    Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges

    92 49.7 37.7 10.3 26.1

    Tour and travel guides

    65 85.0 6.4 2.9 13.4

    Childcare workers

    1,193 76.7 15.5 4.1 24.3

    Personal care aides

    1,354 62.3 24.6 8.3 22.4

    Recreation and fitness workers

    497 76.0 15.6 4.3 9.2

    Residential advisors

    41 - - - -

    Personal care and service workers, all other

    171 72.2 17.8 5.4 15.3

    Sales and office occupations

    33,461 78.6 12.8 4.9 16.6

    Sales and related occupations

    15,806 80.2 11.0 5.3 16.3

    First-line supervisors of retail sales workers

    3,366 80.8 10.2 5.3 13.9

    First-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers

    1,257 84.7 6.9 6.4 15.0

    Cashiers

    3,200 70.3 17.3 6.6 24.5

    Counter and rental clerks

    114 71.4 20.4 5.8 24.6

    Parts salespersons

    127 82.2 9.2 2.8 19.3

    Retail salespersons

    3,147 78.7 12.6 5.1 18.2

    Advertising sales agents

    221 81.2 10.4 4.8 14.9

    Insurance sales agents

    619 83.3 8.7 5.3 11.6

    Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents

    231 85.6 6.3 6.8 11.9

    Travel agents

    79 77.9 17.7 4.4 9.9

    Sales representatives, services, all other

    516 89.0 6.5 2.9 7.5

    Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing

    1,273 90.8 4.1 2.9 11.2

    Models, demonstrators, and product promoters

    60 79.0 8.8 7.2 13.4

    Real estate brokers and sales agents

    1,072 86.0 6.4 6.1 10.8

    Sales engineers

    34 - - - -

    Telemarketers

    58 69.3 23.3 3.7 22.9

    Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors, and related workers